Goldfish were bred in China about 1500 years ago and very quickly gained popularity among lovers of domestic animals for their beauty, grace, unpretentiousness and longevity.
The goldfish is an artificially bred species of freshwater fish from the genus of crucian carp.
How to care for goldfish? Over the years, breeders have managed to obtain about 300 of their species of various colors, sizes and shapes.
The range of colors is very wide – from red-golden to black with a blue tint. However, all fish retain one feature – the abdomen is always slightly lighter than the main color. The size of an aquarium goldfish usually does not exceed 15-20 centimeters, although in special ponds they often reach 45 centimeters without taking into account the tail.
The life expectancy of a goldfish at home has long been controversial. Some aquarists believe that fish live a maximum of 3-4 years, while others argue that the maximum age is 25-35 years. The dispute was resolved by the death of the fish Tish, who died in its aquarium at the age of 43. Therefore, we can assume that life expectancy depends on the conditions of detention and the breed.
How and what to feed goldfish in an aquarium?
Goldfish are quite omnivorous, for their full nutrition you can use:
- special multi-component feed;
- live food, which contains a large amount of protein – bloodworm, tubule, cortetra, daphnia, brine shrimp, rotifer, earthworms;
- vegetable food: duckweed, naiad, wolfia, riccia, hornwort, vallisneria.
The diet of aquarium goldfish will be supplemented by:
- finely chopped lettuce, nettle, spinach, dandelion, cabbage, plantain, parsley, dill leaves;
- fresh finely grated vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, zucchini, cucumbers);
- chopped seafood (squid, shrimp, lean fish fillets);
- buckwheat, semolina or millet porridge, cooked without salt and well washed from mucus; spirulina; bread crumb.
Observe the basic rule of feeding: if it is dry food, the fish should eat the entire portion in 5-10 minutes; if it is live or plant food – then in 10-20 minutes. Remove uneaten food immediately from the aquarium to avoid contaminating the water..
Pay attention to one detail: before pouring dry food into the aquarium, soak it for a few seconds, and feed in the form of granules for 10-20 seconds. This is necessary so that it swells a little, since fish swallow water along with food and the food increases in volume, overloading the stomach.
Goldfish are prone to overeating – feed them no more than twice a day: morning and evening, giving different types of food. The best feeding amount is a pinch between two fingers. Feed at certain hours – this way the fish will not have time to get hungry.
How to properly care for and maintain goldfish?
Goldfish are quite capricious creatures, so follow certain rules.
- Choose an aquarium depending on the size and shape of the body of the fish. For example, for long-bodied individuals whose size exceeds 30 cm, aquariums with a volume of at least 200 liters of water are required. Keep these fish separate from their smaller counterparts. It is advisable to use aquariums of a classic rectangular shape, with a water column of no more than 50 cm.
- Pay attention to the fact that goldfish do not get along with all species. For example: even among those of equal size, you need to carefully select neighbors for telescopes and bubble eyes, since telescopes can stay hungry next to more agile inhabitants, and bubble eyes can simply be injured.
- Temperature control is very important for aquarium goldfish. Long-bodied individuals feel comfortable at water temperatures from 17 to 26 ° C, and for short-bodied individuals should be higher – within 21-29 ° C. This may require additional heating of the water.
Goldfish are demanding on the oxygen content in the water, which is why a filter and a compressor are used in the aquarium. Aeration should be around the clock.
Important! Goldfish are gregarious creatures, so calculate the number of inhabitants of the aquarium correctly. There is an unspoken rule that one small fish requires at least 20 liters of water. And you can calculate it like this: for 1 cm of the body length of a fish – 3 liters of water. Otherwise, the inhabitants of the aquarium will not have enough oxygen for a normal life.
Decorating the aquarium
Approach the decoration of the aquarium with care, but it is better to keep it to a minimum. Large objects will interfere with swimming. When keeping bubble-eyes or veil-tails, decoration, except for aquatic plants, is not used at all.
When choosing plants, keep in mind that the fish can eat them. Therefore, if you do not want the inhabitants of the aquarium to eat plants, choose plants with hard leaves. If you want to diversify your diet, plant edible plants.
Diversify the underwater world with plants in pots: the fish love to dig in the ground, and this way you will preserve the roots of the plants. Choose the soil either very coarse or, conversely, very fine. This will eliminate the possibility of swallowing it.
Features of keeping in a round aquarium
A round aquarium is easy to install, does not take up much space and looks impressive in any interior. However, it has its own specifics.
In a round aquarium, the surface area of the water is relatively small, which leads to an oxygen deficiency. Therefore, a special compressor labeled “for round aquariums” is required.
Small aquariums with a volume of 5 liters are suitable only for one small fish, for everyone else it will not be a house, but rather a prison. It is very difficult to equip such an aquarium with the necessary equipment – a filter and a compressor. A volume of 20 liters is already enough to plant plants and settle several fish.
When planting plants, remember that they need lighting. Conventional incandescent lamps are most suitable, since their spectrum is as close as possible to sunlight. The optimal brightness is set at the rate of 1-2 watts per 1 liter of water. A good solution would be to purchase a round aquarium with lighting in the kit.
The round shape somewhat restricts the movement of fish, while the refraction of light creates a lens effect, which can negatively affect their health. Therefore, it is necessary to populate a round aquarium with small fish in a limited amount, overpopulation will immediately affect their condition.
Goldfish look very impressive and unpretentious in content. With a little effort, you will create your own underwater world, which you will admire for many years.